Marilyn Barrett, Ph.D.
Multi-disciplinary background with broad range of experience in medicinal plant research including taxonomic botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Experience in public speaking, writing and editing. Excellent communication skills with the ability to listen and respond to your consulting needs. Self-employed since 1994.
- Ph.D. Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK 1985
- B.A. Botany, University of California, Berkeley 1977
Pharmacognosy Consulting Services
Founder and Principal, 1994-current
Provide scientific information & technical expertise to manufacturers, law offices, associations and government concerning medicinal plant products. Coordinate research projects with contract labs and other consultants. Compile and interpret scientific literature on the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants. Advise on methods of assuring botanical identity and interpretation of chemical analysis of constituents. Write and edit comprehensive monographs and instructional leaflets. Lecture, teach and train individuals and/or groups.
Partial Client list, 1995-2004
Advisory Committees and Professional Affiliations
Trout Lake Farm Co.
, Trout Lake, WA, November 1995 to June 1997
Director of Research & Development
- Directed and coordinated the analysis of medicinal plant crops for the presence and quantity of biologically active constituents.
- Evaluated and provided scientific information and support to several divisions of the company, including Production, Processing, Quality Assurance, and Sales & Marketing.
, South San Francisco, CA
Senior Scientist, 1993-94
Research Scientist, 1991-93
Planetree Health Care Resource Center
- Designed, implemented and supervised the cell culture and virology laboratories which conducted in vitro screening assays as part of the company's ethnobotanically-driven drug discovery program.
- Established assays which detected antiviral activity and toxicity, facilitating activity-guided fractionation of plant extracts selected following surveys of indigenous healers.
- Streamlined the screening process by facilitating communication between departments. Developed and maintained databases which facilitated management of assay results.
- Supervised Quality Control/Quality Assurance antiviral testing for products in clinical trials.
, Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA
Medical Researcher, 1990-91
The William Harvey Research Institute
- Researched current treatments for various health issues upon individual requests from the public.
- Produced customized information packages including basic anatomy and physiology, research articles, literature searches on recent and experimental clinical developments and ŽalternativeŪ medical approaches.
, St. Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College, London, UK.
Research Scientist, 1986-89
Department of Pharmacology, Hunterian Institute
- Studied the immunomodulatory effects of endothelial-derived relaxing factor (nitric oxide) in an in vitro model employing cultured endothelial cells and isolated platelets, mononuclear cells and granulocytes.
- Designed and established the cell culture laboratory for the Institute. Supervisors: Sir John Vane, Nobel Prize Winner and founder of the Institute; A.L. Willis, on sabbatical from Syntex, USA.
, Royal College of Surgeons of England, London, UK
Research Associate, 1983-86
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy
- Studied the interactions between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and adherent rheumatoid synovial cells in an in vitro model for rheumatoid arthritis.
- Projects involved the effects of various stimuli, inflammatory mediators and anti-inflammatory drugs upon the production and action of cytokines and arachidonic acid metabolites.
, University of London, UK
Teaching Assistant, 1981-83
Post-graduate Student, 1979-83
US Dept. of Agriculture Western Regional Research Center
- Taught undergraduates methods of extraction and chromatographic separation of biologically active natural products in the B. Pharm. (Hons.) course.
- Thesis title: Isolation of a non-cannabinoid anti-inflammatory agents from Cannabis sativa L.
Advisors: J.W. Fairbairn and F.J. Evans of the School of Pharmacy and D. Gordon of the Royal College of Surgeons. Identified biologically active flavonoids from Cannabis sativa L. using activity guided-fractionation. Principle activity was inhibition of prostaglandin E2 release (monitored by radioimmunoassay) from cultured human rheumatoid synovial cells.
, Albany, CA.
Research Technician, 1978-79
University of California Herbarium and Jepson Herbarium
- Explored chemical interactions between bacteria (Rhizobium sp.) and nitrogen-fixing leguminous plants. Maintenance of Rhizobium cultures, soybean plants and plant callus tissue cultures.
, Berkeley, CA.
- Taxonomic identification of plant specimens, assistance in taxonomic research, shipping of herbarium specimens and general herbarium maintenance.
- "Pharmacognosy in Clinical Trials" at the International Congress on Natural Products Research Classical Pharmacognosy Forum, July 31, 2004, Phoenix, Arizona.
- "Evaluating the Quality and Efficacy of Herbal Preparations" at the 12th Annual Congress on Women's Health, June 8, 2004, Hilton Head Island, SC.
- "Pharmacognosy: Discovering the Secrets of Nature's Chemists" a keynote address at The New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists Spring Seminal, April 13, 2004, Skillman, NJ.
- "Herbal Medicine" a college course lecture at the San Jose State University, February 19, 2004, San Jose, CA.
- "Herbal Remedies: a Perspective for Health Professionals" a lecture to health professionals employed by the City of San Jose, February 10, 2004, San Jose, CA.
- "Herbal Remedies, a Discussion for Seniors" a lecture to seniors organized by the City of San Jose, February 4, 2004, San Jose, CA.
- "Clinically Efficacious Herbal Medicines" a featured speaker for the American Women in Science, Palo Alto Chapter, December 4, 2001, Palo Alto, CA.
- "Medicinal Plants" a college course lecture at the University of La Verne, October 16, 2001, La Verne, CA.
- "Herbal Product Standardization, in the crossfire" at Natural Products EXPO West, March 26, 2000, Anaheim, CA.
- "Models to Predict Therapeutic Benefit: Clinical, Bioassay, Chemical" in a symposium titled, "Botanicals - Let's Talk Science #6: Emerging Methods and Technologies" at the SupplySide West '99, November 11, 1999, Las Vegas, NV
- "Moving Towards Harmonizing Analytical Methods" in symposium titled, "Botanicals - Let's Talk Science, Analytical Methods; Robust, Rugged and Ready" at the Natural Products EXPO West, March 12, 1999, Anaheim, CA.
- "Analysis of Herbal Products" at University Southern California School of Pharmacy Board of Councilor's Annual Retreat. October 9, 1998, Los Angeles, CA.
- "Taking a Stand on Standardization, What You Need to Know" at Natural Products EXPO East, September 9-13, 1998, Baltimore, MD
- "Overview of Current Pharmacological Investigations on Saw Palmetto" in American Herbal Products Symposium on Saw Palmetto, August 20-22, 1998, Naples, FL.
- "How to Tell Apples from Oranges, the Challenge of Herbal Identification" at Natural Products EXPO East, September 17-21, 1997, Baltimore, MD.
Barrett, M. (2004) The Handbook of Clinically Tested Herbal Remedies
. Volumes I and II. Haworth Press, August, 1400 pg
Barrett, M. (1998) Reference on Evaluating Botanicals
. Council for Responsible Nutrition, Wash. D.C., 48 pg.
Barrett, M. (2000) Chaparral. In, Herbs Everyday Reference for Health Professionals. Chandler F (Ed). Ottawa, ON. Canadian Pharmacists Association and Canadian Medical Association. pg 73-75
Barrett, M. (1999) Willow Therapeutics: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In, American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium, Willow Bark, Salix spp., Analytical, Quality Control and Therapeutic Monograph. Santa Cruz, CA: AHP. pg 11-13.
Barrett, M. (1999) Astragalus Therapeutics: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In, American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium, Astragalus Root, Astragalus membranaceus, Analytical, Quality Control and Therapeutic Monograph. Santa Cruz, CA: AHP. pg 14-20.
Barrett, M. (1999) Schisandra Therapeutics: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In, American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium, Schisandra Berry, Schisandra chinensis, Analytical, Quality Control and Therapeutic Monograph. Santa Cruz, CA.: AHP. pg. 12-18.
Barrett, M. (1999) The Pharmacology of Saw Palmetto in Treatment of BPH. Journal of the American Nutriceutical Association (JANA). 2(3): 21-24.
Barrett, M. (1999) Regulation of Dietary Supplements. The Integrative Pharmacy. Aug. 8
Barrett, M. (1999) Valerian Therapeutics: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In, American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium, Valerian Root, Valeriana officinalis, Analytical, Quality Control and Therapeutic Monograph. Santa Cruz, CA: AHP. pg. 13-17.
Livesey J, Awang DVC, Arnason JT, Letchamo W, Barrett M, Pennyroyal G. (1999) Effect of Temperature on Stability of Marker Constituents in Echinacea purpurea root formulations. Phytomedicine 6(5): 347-349
Barrett, M. (1998) Reference on Evaluating Botanicals. Council for Responsible Nutrition, Wash DC. 48 pg.
Kernan MR, Amarquaye A, Chen JL, Chan J, Sesan D, Parkinson N, Ye Z, Barrett M, Bales C, Stoddart CA, Sloan B, Blanc P, Limbach C, Mrisho S, Rozhan, E (1998). Antiviral Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from the Medicinal Plant Markhamia lutea. J Nat Prod 61: 564-570
Ubillas R, Jolad SD, Bruening RC, Kernan MR, King SR, Sesin DF, Barrett M, Stoddart CA, Flaster T, Kuo J, Ayala F, Meza E, Castanel M, McMeekin D, Rozhon E, Tempesta MS, Barnard D, Huffman J, Smee D, Sidwell R, Soike K, Brazier A, Safrin S, Orlando R, Kenny PTM, Berova N, Nakanishi K (1994). SP-303, an Antiviral Oligomeric Proanthocyanidin from the Latex of Croton lecheri (Sangre de Drago). Phytomedicine 1: 77-106
Barrett ML (1993). In-vitro studies using different anti-viral protocols to confirm the antiviral activity of SP-303 against respiratory syncytial virus. Shaman Report SP-303 E-060
Barrett ML (1993). Activity of SP-303 against Human nasal wash viral isolates. Shaman Report SP-303 G-008
Barrett ML, Willis AL and Vane JR (1989). Inhibition of platelet-derived mitogen release by nitric oxide (EDRF). Agents and Actions 27 (3-4): 488-491
Desa FM, Chander CL, Corry DG, DeBrito FB, Moore AR, Barrett ML, and Willoughby DA (1988). The effects of indomethacin on rat cartilage breakdown in vivo and in vitro: Potentiation with interleukin-1 in vitro. Br J Pharmacol 95: 678P
Barrett ML, Willis AL and Vane JR (1988). Anti-atherosclerotic potential of nitric oxide (EDRF) via inhibition of platelet mitogen release. Br J Pharmacol 95: 689P
Barrett ML, Lewis GP, Ward S, and Westwick J (1987). Platelet activating factor induces interleukin-1 production from human adherent macrophages. Br J Pharmacol 90: 113P
Barrett ML, Lewis GP, and O'Neill LAJ (1987). Mechanism of IL-1 induced PGE2 formation in human synovial cells. Br J Pharmacol 90: 65P
O'Neill LAJ, Barrett ML and Lewis GP (1987). Induction of cyclo-oxygenase by interleukin-1 in rheumatoid synovial cells. Febs Lett 212(1): 35-39
O'Neil LAJ, Barrett ML and Lewis GP (1987). Extracts of feverfew inhibit mitogen-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine mediated responses: a cytotoxic effect. Br J Clin Pharmacol 23: 81-83
Barrett ML, Lewis GP, Ward S, and Westwick J (1986). Platelet activating factor modulates interleukin-2-induced proliferation of human T-lymphphoblasts. Br J Pharmacol 89: 505P
Barrett ML and Lewis GP (1986). Unique properties of auranofin as a potenial anti-rheumatic drug. Agents and Actions 19(1 -2): 109-115
Lewis GP and Barrett ML (1986). Immunosuppressive actions of prostaglandins and the possible increase in chronic inflammation after cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. Agents and Actions 19(1-2): 59-65
Barrett ML, Scutt AM, and Evans FJ (1986). Cannflavin A and B, prenylated flavones from Cannabis sativa. Experiencia 42: 452-453
Gordon D, Barrett ML, and Lewis GP (1985). Effects of exogenous cytokines on the anti-lymphoproliferation effects of auranofin and Na aurothiomalate. Br J Rheumatol 24 (Suppl. 1): 224-225
Barrett ML, Gordon D, and Lewis GP (1985). Effects of exogenous cytokines on the antiproliferation effects of inhibitors of IL-1 (MCF) release. J Leukocyte Biol 37(6): 684
Evans AT, Formukong E, Barrett ML, and Evans FJ (1985). Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. inhibit lipoxgenase activity. J Pharm Pharmac 37: 43P
Barrett ML, Gordon D, Evans FJ (1985). Isolation from Cannabis sativa L. of Cannflavin - a novel inhibitor of prostaglandin production. Biochem Pharmacol. 34(11): 2019-2024
Edwards MC, Evans FJ, Barrett ML, and Gordon D (1985). Structural correlations of phorbol-ester induced stimulation of PGE2 production by human rheumatoid synovial cells, Inflammation 9: 33-38
Barrett ML, Gordon D, Scutt A, and Evans FJ (1984). A novel flavonoid with potential anti-inflammatory activity from Cannabis sativa L. IUPHAR 9th International Congress of Pharmacology, 1914P, McMillan Press Ltd.
Barrett ML, Gordon D, Scutt A, and Evans FJ (1984). The structure of a novel inhibitor, isolated from Cannabis sativa L. of prostaglandin E2 production by human rheumatoid synovial cells. J Pharm Pharmac 36: 48P
Edwards MC, Barrett ML, Gordon D, and Evans FJ (1983). Stimulation of human rheumatoid synovial cells prostaglandin production by phorbol esters. J Pharm Pharmac 35: 14P
Barrett ML, Gordon D and Evans FJ (1982). Inhibition of Prostaglandin E2 production by a tetrahydrocannabinol-free extract of Cannabis sativa L. J Pharm Pharmac 34: 39P